作者：Abhijit Banerjee,Esther Duflo
The nurses’ workload was based on an ideology that wants to see nurses as dedicated social workers, designed in ignorance of the conditions on the ground, that lives on, mostly just on paper, because of inertia. Altering the rules to make the jobs doable might not be sufficient to get the nurses to come to work regularly, but it has to be a necessary first step.
P259 / 2020-11-27 16:29
This is what we call, for short, the “three Is” problem: ideology, ignorance, inertia. This problem plagues many efforts to supposedly help the poor.
P258 / 2020-11-27 16:29
A sense of stability may be necessary for people to be able to take the long view. It is possible that people who don’t envision substantial improvements in their future quality of life opt to stop trying and therefore end up staying where they are.
P229 / 2020-11-27 16:09
It seems that in order to work, an information campaign must have several features: It must say something that people don’t already know (general exhortations like “No sex before marriage” seem to be less effective); it must do so in an attractive and simple way (a film, a play, a TV show, a well-designed report card); and it must come from a credible source (interestingly, the press seems to be viewed as credible). One of the corollaries of this view is that governments pay a huge cost in terms of lost credibility when they say things that are misleading, confusing, or false.
P268 / 2020-11-27 16:08
The emphasis on government jobs, in particular, suggests a desire for stability, as these jobs tend to be very secure even when they are not very exciting. And in fact, stability of employment appears to be the one thing that distinguishes the middle classes from the poor.
P227 / 2020-11-25 21:10
Everywhere we have asked, the most common dream of the poor is that their children become government workers. The poor don’t see becoming an entrepreneur as something to aspire to.
P227 / 2020-11-25 21:01
It is only recently that men in the West have learned to at least pay lip service to the many things that their wife who “does not work” does for them; it would not be astonishing if their developing-country counterparts ascribed more leisure to their spouses than they actually enjoy.
P226 / 2020-11-25 20:56
To get (the extremely poor villagers) started, BRAC designed a program in which they would be given an asset (a pair of cows, a few goats, a sewing machine, and so on), a small financial allowance for a few months (to serve as working capital and to ensure they would not be tempted to liquidate the asset), and a lot of hand-holding: regular meetings, literacy classes, encouragement to save a little bit every week.
P212 / 2020-11-25 10:42
The Victorians thought that was just how the poor were—much too impatient and unable to think far enough ahead. Consequently, they believed that the only way to keep the poor from sinking into a life of sloth was to threaten them with extreme misery if they ever strayed from the straight and narrow. So they had the nightmarish poorhouse (where the indigent were housed) and the debtors’ prisons that Charles Dickens wrote about.
P185 / 2020-11-24 23:45
the human brain processes the present and the future very differently. In essence, we seem to have a vision of how we should act in the future that is often inconsistent with the way we act today and will act in the future. One form that this “time inconsistency” takes is to spend now, at the same time as we plan to save in the future. In other words, we hope that our “tomorrow’s self” will be more patient than “today’s self” is prepared to be.
P194 / 2020-11-24 23:45
(Microcredit) is sometimes described, almost like a character in a Greek myth, as a beast with two teats—a profit mission and a social mission—and by all accounts it has known impressive successes on both fronts.
P166 / 2020-11-23 17:22
And the fact that today countries with higher fertility rates are poorer doesn’t tell us that they are poorer because of high fertility: It could instead be that they have high fertility because they are poor, or some third factor could cause both high fertility and poverty.
P107 / 2020-11-20 13:36
The world over, education systems are under stress. Enrollment has gone up faster than resources, and with the growth in the high-tech sectors, there is a worldwide increase in the demand for the kind of people who used to become teachers. Now they are becoming programmers, computer systems managers, and bankers instead. This is going to be a particularly serious issue for finding good teachers at the secondary level and beyond.
P97 / 2020-11-17 22:20
The study found that, on average, teachers gave significantly lower grades to lower-caste students when they could see their caste than when they could not. But interestingly, it was not the higher-caste teachers who were doing this. The lower-caste teachers were actually more likely to assign worse grades to lower-caste students. They must have been convinced these children could not do well.
P92 / 2020-11-17 21:36
We should recognize that no one is wise, patient, or knowledgeable enough to be fully responsible for making the right decisions for his or her own health.
P69 / 2020-11-16 14:13
Research in psychology has now been applied to a range of economic phenomena to show that we think about the present very differently from the way we think about the future (a notion referred to as “time inconsistency”). In the present, we are impulsive, governed in large part py emotions and immediate desire: Small losses of time (standing in line to get the child immunized) or petty discomforts (glutes that need to be woken up) that have to be endured right now feel much more unpleasant in the moment than when we think about them without a sense of immediacy (say, after a Christmas meal that was heavy enough to rule out all thoughts of immediate exercise).
P64 / 2020-11-16 14:03
Our natural inclination is to postpone small costs, so that they are borne not by our today self by by our tomorrow self instead.
P65 / 2020-11-16 13:55
Several studies that have tested whether people use things less because they got them for free round no evidence of such behavior.
P57 / 2020-11-15 21:57
The trouble is that governments have a way of making easy things much less easy than they should be.
P54 / 2020-11-15 21:47
The largest gains are obtained at low levels of food consumption. There is no steep jump in income once people start eating enough. This suggests that the very poor benefit more from eating extra calories than the less poor. This is precisely the type of situation where we would not see a poverty trap. So it is not because they don’t eat enough that most people stay poor.
P27 / 2020-10-18 10:53
The likely explanation is that because the staple formed such a large part of the household budget, the subsidies had made them richer. If the consumption of the staple is associated with being poor (say, because it is cheap but not particularly Lasty). feeling richer might actually have made them consume less of it. Once again, this suggests thas at least among these very poor urban households, getting more calories was not prority: Getting better-tasting ones was.
P24 / 2020-10-18 10:41